Cracking the Code


According to Johns Hopkins Medicine, “biofeedback is a mind-body technique that uses various forms of monitoring devices to create conscious control over physical processes that are normally under automatic control of the body.” These responses are managed by control techniques to duplicate the desired response of the biofeedback modality. Physicians, psychiatrists, therapists, and technicians provide biofeedback in physical therapy, pain management, and psychiatric services.


CPT code 90901 is reported for biofeedback training used to improve and regulate vital signs (for example, heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension of the autonomic or involuntary nervous system). Time is not considered a factor when using this code since training can be administered over several sessions.


CPT code 90912 is used to report biofeedback training for perineal muscles, anorectal, or urethral sphincter when performed, per 15 minutes of one-on-one contact. The code includes EMG and/or manometry. (Additional increments of 15 minutes are reported using the add-on code +90913.)


It is important to note that biofeedback training codes 90901, 90912, and +90913 should not be confused with needle electromyography testing or H and F reflex studies. These tests may be coded separately when provided concurrently with biofeedback.

Q: A patient with long-time stress urinary incontinence undergoes biofeedback training for improvement of urine leakage. The physician spends 15 minutes one-on-one with the patient. Which CPT code accurately reports this service?
A: 90912 Rationale: Code 90912 describes biofeedback training for the urethral sphincter for the initial 15 minutes of provider time. In the CPT Index, look for Biofeedback Training/Anorectal.
Reference: 2023 CPT codebook, Johns Hopkins Medicine
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